The different types of photography are sports photography, underwater photography, landscape photography, animal photography, aerial photography, architecture photography, advertising photography, documentary photography etc.
The main types of equipments for photography are the camera, tripod, lens, flashes and camera cases. Source:http://photography.about.com/od/photographyequipment/Photography_Equipment.htm
Aperture is a hole which allows us to focus on the image, and determines the sharpness of the image. It also controls the speed of the shutter. Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aperture
The focus is for adjusting the clearness of the objects taken in the picture.
Shutter speed is the time used to take a picture. It can halve or double the amount of light the picture has. Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shutter_speed
ISO speed controls the fineness and number of pixels in the picture taken.
Source: My Father
In photography, metering mode determines the exposure of the items in the picture. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metering_mode
The white balance in photography is for getting the colours of the images to be as clear as possible.
Composition of photography is the most important item in photography. It is for increasing the expressiveness of the picture.